Which disease is caused by alphavirus?

Alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, O’Nyong–Nyong virus, Ross River virus, have been widely known to cause fever, rash, and rheumatic diseases.

What is meant by alphavirus?

Definition. Alphaviruses are infectious agents that replicate in humans and many animals; this viral genus includes Chikungunya virus, Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods, mainly mosquitoes, and thus are arboviruses.

How is alphavirus treated?

Treatment of illness: There is no specific treatment or established cure for alphaviruses. Supportive care (intravenous fluids, medicine to control fever and pain) is the standard treatment.

Is Chikungunya a flavivirus?

Introduction. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) transmitted by mosquitoes. Based on the most current taxonomy of viruses, CHIKV and ZIKV belong to the Togaviridae family and the Flaviviridae family, respectively.

How is alphavirus prevented?

Prevention. Alphavirus infection can be prevented by avoiding exposure to mosquitoes that transmit these viruses. Personal protective strategies include wearing repellent, staying in screened or air-conditioned dwellings, and avoiding outdoor activities during times when the vectors are most avidly seeking blood meals.

What diseases are caused by arbovirus?

These infections usually occur during warm weather months, when mosquitoes and ticks are active. Examples include California encephalitis, Chikungunya, dengue, Eastern equine encephalitis, Powassan, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and Zika.

What causes Togavirus?

Togaviruses Causing Rash and Fever They include the alphaviruses, which are distributed worldwide and cause illness in many hundreds of thousands of people each year. Clinical illnesses caused by togaviruses range from mild fever to severe diseases, such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever.

Is Togavirus an arbovirus?

Togavirus, any of three genera of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the family Togaviridae.

How many Alphaviruses are there?

There are 32 alphaviruses, which infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses, as well as invertebrates.

Is chikungunya epidemic or pandemic?

While the disease typically occurs in Africa and Asia, outbreaks have been reported in Europe and the Americas since the 2000s. In 2014 more than a million suspected cases occurred.

Chikungunya
Usual onset 2 to 12 days after exposure
Duration Usually less than a week
Causes Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread by mosquitoes

What are the long-term effects of chikungunya?

Long-term persistence of chronic joint symptoms is associated with the severity of the disease during the initial phase of the infection, but not gender, age, or comorbidities. The common manifestations were arthralgia (75.3%), morning joint stiffness (39.0%), muscle pain (19.5%), and occasional joint swelling (16.9%).

What should not eat in chikungunya?

It’s advisable to go easy on non-vegetarian food as it overwhelms the body system and increases load on the liver. Also, if possible, do avoid eating out. Barley (sattu), pomegranate and soups should be made a part of the diet as they help detoxify the liver.

Can arboviruses be cured?

Because this is a viral disease, antibiotics will not help. There are no effective antiviral medicines at this time. There is no specific treatment for encephalitis. The main goal is to ease symptoms and keep the person’s breathing and circulation working well while the infection runs its course.

Is Ebola an arbovirus?

The ACAV 1985 catalogue listing includes 12 arenaviruses, four hantaviruses, and Ebola and Marburg, which are not arboviruses but appear in the catalogue because they are viruses likely to be encountered by arbovirus field investigators.

Are arboviruses genetically related?

Genetic diversity underlies individual differences in human disease pathogenesis and severity. Not surprisingly, the outcomes of arboviral infection are associated with many genetic mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the majority of which are related to immune pathways (Table 1).

What are the symptoms of Togavirus?

The infection is often asymptomatic or dismissed as a minor flu-like illness. Symptoms may include: fever, myalgia, arthritis, headache, and an exanthem which appears first on trunk of host and progresses to extremities. Less common symptoms include: jaundice and myocardial damage.

What diseases does Orthomyxoviruses cause?

The orthomyxoviruses (influenza viruses) constitute the genus Orthomyxovirus, which consists of three types (species): A, B, and C. These viruses cause influenza, an acute respiratory disease with prominent systemic symptoms.

What organs does rubella affect?

Rubella is an infection that mostly affects the skin and lymph nodes.

Are flaviviruses arbovirus?

The three main genera for arboviruses that cause infections in humans are as follows: flavivirus. togavirus.

Is Covid an arbovirus?

In the early stage of the disease, arbovirus infection (dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and COVID-19 exhibit similar clinical and laboratorial manifestations, thereby rendering the diagnoses more difficult.

What diseases are caused by flavivirus?

Members of this family belong to a single genus, Flavivirus, and cause widespread morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Some of the mosquitoes-transmitted viruses include: Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile viruses, and Zika virus.

Is veev an alphavirus?

Abstract: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. VEEV is highly infectious in aerosol form and a known bio-warfare agent that can cause severe encephalitis in humans.

Is rubella an alphavirus?

This family comprises two genera, the alphaviruses and rubiviruses. While the Alphavirus genus has approximately 40 recognized members, the Rubella virus is the only member of the Rubivirus genus.

Where does alpha virus come from?

Alphaviruses are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods, typically the mosquito, and replicate in both arthropod and vertebrate hosts worldwide. Members of the genus are categorized into either the New World or Old World group based upon the area in which they are found and the disease they cause.

How can I recover from chikungunya fast?

Treat the symptoms:

  1. Get plenty of rest.
  2. Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
  3. Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or paracetamol to reduce fever and pain.
  4. Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of bleeding).

Which medicine is best for chikungunya?

There are no specific drugs to treat chikungunya; doctors simply recommend rest and plenty of fluids. Over-the-counter medications will help ease fever and joint pain. Treatment

  • naproxen.
  • ibuprofen.
  • acetaminophen.

How long does chikungunya last in your body?

Most people recover fully, with symptoms resolving in three to 10 days. For some people, joint pain may continue for months, or even years. Death from complications of chikungunya is very rare, but the virus sometimes causes severe problems, mostly in older adults with other chronic illnesses.

How does chikungunya affect the brain?

The mosquito-borne virus chikungunya may lead to severe brain infection and even death in infants and people over 65, according to findings published in Neurology. Share on Pinterest Mosquito-borne chikungunya can lead to encephalitis.

Can chikungunya cause weight loss?

In some cases with persistent arthralgia, atypical manifestations, including severe depression with suicide attempts, severe weight loss, and severe hair loss, were found, and some patients still experienced severe joint pain.

Does chikungunya cause arthritis?

Telltale symptoms of chikungunya infection are fever and joint pain that last about a week. But in up to half of patients, the virus can cause a debilitating form of arthritis that persists for months or even years.

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