Some examples of alkylating agents are nitrogen mustards (chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide), cisplatin, nitrosoureas (carmustine, lomustine, and semustine), alkylsulfonates (busulfan), ethyleneimines (thiotepa), and triazines (dacarbazine).
What is the mechanism of action of the alkylating drugs?
Most alkylating agents have similar mechanisms of action, but differ in their clinical efficacy. These agents act directly on DNA, resulting in its crosslinking and causing DNA strand breaks, leading to abnormal base pairing and inhibiting cell division, eventually resulting in cell death.
Are alkylating drugs chemotherapy?
Alkylating agents were among the first anti-cancer drugs and are the most commonly used agents in chemotherapy today. Alkylating agents act directly on DNA, causing cross-linking of DNA strands, abnormal base pairing, or DNA strand breaks, thus preventing the cell from dividing.
What is meant by alkylating agent?
: a substance that causes replacement of hydrogen by an alkyl group especially in a biologically important molecule specifically : one with mutagenic activity that inhibits cell division and growth and is used to treat some cancers.
What drug is not alkylating?
Note: Although the platinum-containing anticancer agents, carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin are frequently classified as alkylating agents, they are not. They cause covalent DNA adducts by another means.
Can alkylating agents cause leukemia?
In rare cases, this can lead to leukemia. The risk of leukemia from alkylating agents is “dose-dependent,” meaning that the risk is small with lower doses, but goes up as the total amount of the drug used gets higher. The risk of leukemia after getting alkylating agents is highest about 5 to 10 years after treatment.
What is the major side effect of alkylating agents?
The major clinical toxicities of most of the alkylating agents are similar to those of mechloramine, primarily bone marrow depression (including anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia) and nausea and vomiting.
[KEY]What are antimetabolite drugs?[/KEY]
Antimetabolites are a form of chemotherapy drug. They’re one of the most commonly used therapies to treat cancer. And they’re one of the oldest, dating back to the 1940s, when doctors used a medication that’s now considered an antimetabolite to treat children with leukemia.
What’s the worst chemotherapy drug?
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is one of the most powerful chemotherapy drugs ever invented. It can kill cancer cells at every point in their life cycle, and it’s used to treat a wide variety of cancers. Unfortunately, the drug can also damage heart cells, so a patient can’t take it indefinitely.
[KEY]How many rounds of chemo is normal?[/KEY]
During a course of treatment, you usually have around 4 to 8 cycles of treatment. A cycle is the time between one round of treatment until the start of the next. After each round of treatment you have a break, to allow your body to recover.
How does alkylation damage DNA?
The alkylating agents transfer alkyl (chemical) groups to DNA. DNA alkylation in the nucleus leads to the death of the cell. Alkylation of guanine or other bases results in abnormal base pairing as well as the excision of these bases, which in turn leads to strand breakage.
Which antibiotic is used as antineoplastic agent?
The antineoplastic antibiotics are products of Streptomyces. The important drugs in this group include actinomycin D (dactinomycin), doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, and bleomycin. Drugs less commonly used include daunorubicin, mithramycin, and mitomycin.
What is meant by alkylation?
: the act or process of introducing one or more alkyl groups into a compound (as to increase octane number in a motor fuel)
Which drug is alkylating anticancer?
Cyclophosphamide — the most widely used alkylating agent of modern times. Chlormethine also known as mechlorethamine or mustine (HN2) — the first alkylating agent to receive regulatory approval.
Which is the anticancer drug?
Medicines that are used as anticancer drugs are: Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin), L-Asparaginase (Crasnit’s), Hydroxyurea (Hydrea), and.
[KEY]Can leukemia be cured?[/KEY]
Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects your blood cells and bone marrow. As with other types of cancer, there’s currently no cure for leukemia. People with leukemia sometimes experience remission, a state after diagnosis and treatment in which the cancer is no longer detected in the body.
How many chemo treatments are required for leukemia?
You’ll usually be given a combination of 2 or more chemotherapy drugs. Most people have 2 rounds of induction chemotherapy. The treatment will be carried out in hospital or in a specialist centre, as you’ll need very close medical and nursing supervision. You may be able to go home between treatment rounds.
Is myelosuppression the same as bone marrow suppression?
Myelosuppression, also known as bone marrow suppression, is a decrease in bone marrow activity that results in reduced production of blood cells. Some blood cell disorders include: fewer red blood cells (anemia)
Do alkylating agents cause hair loss?
Chemo More Likely to Cause Hair Loss Alkylating agents: Cytoxan or Neosar (cyclophosphamide), Ifex (ifosfamide), Myleran or Busulfex (busulphan), Thioplex (thiotepa).
What are the three common toxicities caused by alkylating drugs?
Gastrointestinal Toxicity Mucositis, stomatitis, esophagitis, and diarrhea occur with high doses of alkylating agents, particularly after high doses of melphalan and thiotepa or combinations of alkylating agents, including melphalan or thiotepa.
[KEY]Which solution is used as an antiseptic?[/KEY]
Antiseptic solutions containing isopropyl alcohol, povidone-iodine, and/or chlorhexidine gluconate are most commonly used for patient skin preparation.
What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?
But there’s a big difference between antiseptics and disinfectants. An antiseptic is applied to the body, while disinfectants are applied to nonliving surfaces, such as countertops and handrails.
Is alcohol a disinfectant or antiseptic?
Ethanol is a commonly used medical alcohol. Alcohols, in various forms, are used within medicine as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and antidote. Alcohols applied to the skin are used to disinfect skin before a needle stick and before surgery.
Which is an antimetabolite example?
Antimetabolites are small, weakly acidic molecules that are cell cycle non-specific, inhibiting cellular metabolism by acting as false substrates during RNA and DNA synthesis. Examples of these agents include methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, aminopterin, cytarabine, thioguanine, and mercaptopurine.
Is Methotrexate a chemo drug?
Methotrexate is a chemotherapy drug used to treat many different cancers.
Are antimetabolites steroids?
Summary and key points. The antimetabolite agents are effective as corticosteroid-sparing drugs in the treatment of ocular inflammatory disease. The properties, dosing, and most common adverse events of the three commonly used antimetabolites are summarized in Table 36.2.