Alkylation is a chemical process by which an alkyl group is attached to an organic substrate molecule via addition or substitution. An alkyl group is an alkane molecule that is missing a hydrogen atom. For example, methyl groups are the simplest alkyls and result from the removal of a hydrogen atom from methane.
What is alkylation used for?
An alkylation unit (alky) is one of the conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. It is used to convert isobutane and low-molecular-weight alkenes (primarily a mixture of propene and butene) into alkylate, a high octane gasoline component.
What is alkylation reaction with example?
Conventional paraffin (alkane)–olefin (alkene) alkylation is an acid-catalyzed reaction; it involves the addition of a tertiary alkyl cation, generated from an isoalkane (via hydride abstraction) to an olefin. An example of such a reaction is the isobutane–ethylene alkylation, yielding 2,3-dimethylbutane.
Is alkylation a catalyst?
Alkylation is defined broadly as combining an olefin with an aromatic or a paraffin hydrocarbon using a catalyst—the most common catalyst is sulfuric acid.
What causes alkylation?
Alkylation lesions in DNA and RNA result from endogenous compounds, environmental agents and alkylating drugs. Simple methylating agents, e.g. methylnitrosourea, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and drugs like temozolomide or streptozotocin, form adducts at N- and O-atoms in DNA bases.
What is selective alkylation?
Alkylating agents use selective alkylation by adding the desired aliphatic carbon chain to the previously chosen starting molecule. This is one of many known chemical syntheses. Alkyl groups can also be removed in a process known as dealkylation.
What is the major drawback of the alkylation process?
The H 2 SO 4 alkylation process suffers from equipment corrosion, safety problems, and environmental pollution . In particular, high acid consumption, which can be up to 0.5-0.6 lb/gal, is also the major drawback for the H 2 SO 4 alkylation process due to the high-cost regeneration  .
How does an alkylation unit work?
In refining, the alkylation unit produces a high-quality gasoline blendstock by combining two LPG-range molecules to form one gasoline-range molecule. This involves reacting isobutane with some type of light olefin, typically either propylene or butylene coming from the FCC.
What is alkylation reactor?
The alkylation reaction takes place combining the olefins with the isobutane to form the alkylate product which consists of high octane value products that are later blended into the gasoline pool. The hydrocarbons leaving the reactor mostly consist of alkylate, unreacted isobutane, n-butane, and propane.
What is alkylation methylation reaction?
Methylation is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group replacing a hydrogen atom. These terms are commonly used in chemistry, biochemistry, soil science, and the biological sciences. In vitro methylation of tissue samples is also one method for reducing certain histological staining artifacts.
What is alkylation and acylation?
There are two types of Friedel-Crafts reactions, alkylation and acylation. Alkylation reaction add a simple carbon chain to the benzene ring. Acylation adds an acyl group, creating a ketone or aldehyde.
What does alkylates mean?
verb (used with object), al·kyl·at·ed, al·kyl·at·ing. to add one or more alkyl groups to (a compound).
[KEY]What is refinery alkylation?[/KEY]
Alkylation, in petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane components of gasoline. The liquid fraction of this mixture, known as alkylate, consists mainly of isooctane, a compound that lends excellent antiknock characteristics to gasolines.
What is alkylation of benzene?
Alkylation means substituting an alkyl group into something – in this case into a benzene ring. A hydrogen on the ring is replaced by a group like methyl or ethyl and so on. Benzene is treated with a chloroalkane (for example, chloromethane or chloroethane) in the presence of aluminum chloride as a catalyst.
[KEY]What causes Depurination?[/KEY]
In cells, one of the main causes of depurination is the presence of endogenous metabolites undergoing chemical reactions. Hydrolytic depurination is one of the principal forms of damage to ancient DNA in fossil or subfossil material, since the base remains unrepaired.
What are the types of DNA damage?
DNA damage can be subdivided into two types: (1) endogenous damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are derived from metabolic byproducts and (2) exogenous damage caused by radiation (UV, X-ray, gamma), hydrolysis, plant toxins, and viruses.