What is African horse sickness caused by?

African horse sickness is a devastating disease that causes great suffering and many fatalities amongst horses in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by nine different serotypes of the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and it is spread by Culicoid midges.

Is there a vaccine for African horse sickness?

Two types of vaccines have been described for AHS virus. Attenuated live vaccines (monovalent and polyvalent) for use in horses, mules and donkeys, are currently available, as well as a monovalent, serotype 4, inactivated vaccine, produced commercially but no longer available.

Is African horse sickness fatal?

African Horse Sickness (AHS) is highly infectious viral disease which frequently proves fatal.

Is African horse sickness contagious?

African horse sickness (AHS) virus causes a non-contagious, infectious, arthropod-borne disease of equines and occasionally of dogs. The virus is widely distributed across sub-Saharan African where it is transmitted between susceptible vertebrate hosts by the vectors.

How do you stop African horse sickness?

The best way to protect animals from African horse sickness is to decrease their exposure to biting midges and other insects (e.g., mosquitoes and biting flies). Stabling horses in insect-proof housing, particularly between dusk and dawn when the insects are most active, can help prevent exposure.

How long does African horse sickness last?

The acute respiratory form is characterized by an incubation period of 3–5 days, interlobular edema, and hydropericardium. Death occurs in ~1 wk. A fever of 40°–40.5°C (104°–105°F) for 1–2 days is followed by dyspnea, spasmodic coughing, and dilated nostrils.

Is African horse sickness in the US?

African horse sickness is endemic in sub-Saharan central and east Africa. This disease often spreads to southern Africa and occasionally to northern Africa. Outbreaks have been seen in Egypt and other parts of the Middle East, as well as in Spain. The disease has never been recorded in North America.

How do you test for African horse sickness?

African horse sickness is often diagnosed by virological methods. More than one test should be used to diagnose an outbreak (particularly the index case) whenever possible. AHSV can be isolated from the blood of live animals, or from tissue samples, especially spleen, lung and lymph nodes, collected at necropsy.

Is African horse sickness notifiable?

African horse sickness is a notifiable animal disease. If you suspect it you must report it immediately by calling the Defra Rural Services Helpline on 03000 200 301.

What Virus Kills horses?

An outbreak of a neurological form of the common equine herpes virus has killed nearly 20 horses and sickened over 100 more. It has forced the shutdown of competitions across 10 European countries.

Can dogs get African horse sickness?

Several dogs died from African horsesickness which was contracted by the consumption of uncooked meat from the carcase of a horse that had died from the disease. Respiratory embarrassment was the main clinical sign, while marked hydrothorax and pulmonary congestion and oedema were the major post mortem findings.

Can horses make people sick?

Before you interact with horses, be aware that horses can sometimes carry germs that can make people sick, even when they appear healthy and clean. Always get routine veterinary care for your horse to keep it healthy and to prevent infectious diseases.

Can horses transmit diseases to humans?

Can you get a disease from your horse? Yes, but the good news is that direct horse to human disease transmission is rare. Here’s a quick refresher on some bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral diseases that can potentially be transmitted to us directly from the equines in our lives.

What is glanders virus?

Glanders is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. While people can get the disease, glanders is primarily a disease affecting horses. It also affects donkeys and mules and can be naturally contracted by other mammals such as goats, dogs, and cats.

Are horses in Africa?

It is the only feral herd of horses residing in Africa, with a population ranging between 90 and 150. The Namib Desert horse is athletic in appearance, resembling the European light riding horses from which it probably descends, and usually dark in color.

What diseases can horses get?

  • Common Equine Diseases.
  • Equine Influenza (“Flu”)
  • Rhinopneumonitis/Equine Herpesvirus (EHV)
  • Equine Encephalomyelitis (“Sleeping Sickness”)
  • Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIA)
  • West Nile Virus.
  • Streptococcus equi (“Strangles”)
  • Tetanus (“Lockjaw”)

What causes equine infectious anemia?

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a viral disease transmitted primarily by flies, contaminated instruments and equipment. There is no vaccine for EIA and no known treatment. Horses that survive the acute phase of infection become lifelong carriers that pose a transmission risk to other horses.

What is horse Cem?

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) is a venereal disease caused by the bacteria, Taylorella equigenitalis affecting only the equine species. It can have significant impacts on reproduction. Treatment of CEM is usually successful.

What is Coggins test for horses?

A Coggins test is a blood test identifying if a horse is a carrier of Equine Infectious Anemia, a viral disease found in horses. A negative Coggins test is required for all travel between states and at most equine facilities.

What is Newcastle disease?

Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of birds caused by a para-myxo virus. Birds affected by this disease are fowls, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, partridges, guinea fowl and other wild and captive birds, including ratites such ostriches, emus and rhea.

What causes blue tongue disease?

Bluetongue disease is caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV) in the genus Orbivirus (family Reoviridae, subfamily Sedoreovirinae), which infects ruminants, notably sheep and cattle.

What does strangles do to horses?

Strangles is a highly contagious disease of the equine upper respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). The bacteria cross mucous membranes in the nose and mouth to infect lymph nodes where they cause abscesses that can eventually rupture.

During what period of the year is the African horse sickness most prevalent?

The disease occurs with a seasonal (late summer / autumn) and cyclic incidence, appearing the major epizootics in southern Africa during the warm season associated with the presence of the vector. At least two vectors are involved in its transmission: Culicoides imicola and C. bolitinos, although it is believed that C.

What is equine viral arteritis?

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease in horses caused by Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). Infection can go undetected by horse owners/breeders and in herds that were previously unexposed (naïve) abortion rates in pregnant mares can reach up to 70%.

What causes Orbivirus?

Orbiviruses are vector-borne pathogens that are transmitted by ticks, mosquitoes, gnats, and midges.

What causes equine influenza?

It is caused by two subtypes of the influenza A virus, which are related to, but distinct from, influenza viruses in other species. Equine influenza virus spreads easily through contact with infected horses and via contact with infected clothing, equipment, brushes, tack, etc.

What are the diseases of animals?

Common animal diseases and their management

  • Anthrax.
  • Black quarter (black-leg)
  • Foot and mouth disease.
  • Rabies (Mad dog disease)
  • Blue tongue.
  • Pox.
  • Brucellosis of sheep.
  • Tetanus.

How is American Horror Story treated?

No treatment for AHS is known. Control of an outbreak in an endemic region involves quarantine, vector control, and vaccination. To prevent this disease, the affected horses are usually slaughtered, and the uninfected horses are vaccinated against the virus.

What causes sepsis in horses?

Sepsis in mature horses is most commonly observed secondary to gastrointestinal lesions that result in disrupted mucosa and bacterial translocation into circulation (endotoxaemia). Pleuropneumonia and metritis may also cause sepsis in mature horses.

What is Cushing disease in horses?

Equine Cushing’s disease is a complex progressive disease of the pituitary gland of middle age to older horses. The pituitary gland is a small structure located at the base of the brain which produces hormones that regulate many body functions.

Is there a vaccine for EHV-1?

Herpesvirus Vaccines Vaccines available against EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection are available and are being progressively more widely used. They do not completely prevent individual horses from infection but they reduce the risk of infection to other horses and the severity of clinical signs if infection occurs.

How many different African horse sickness serotypes are there?

African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by a virus of the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus. There are 9 antigenically distinct serotypes of AHS virus (AHSV) identified by virus neutralisation, but some cross- reaction has been observed between 1 and 2, 3 and 7, 5 and 8, and 6 and 9.

What is Rift Valley Fever?

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease most commonly seen in domesticated animals in sub-Saharan Africa, such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels. People can get RVF through contact with blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals, or through bites from infected mosquitoes.

Is equine influenza zoonotic?

Although the role of humans in EIV evolution is unknown, historical and serologic evidence suggests EIV has zoonotic potential and is known to infect other nonhuman species (26,28,30).

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