What causes American trypanosomiasis?

It is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors and is found only in the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread). Chagas disease (T. cruzi infection) is also referred to as American trypanosomiasis.

Who is American trypanosomiasis vector?

cruzi vector. Trypanosoma cruzi is transmitted by kissing bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The most common genera responsible for transmission of the disease are Triatoma, Rhodnius, and Panstrongylus. Infection usually occurs after bugs defecate on the bite site and are rubbed into the wound by the host scratching.

What are the symptoms of Chagas disease in humans?

What are the symptoms of Chagas disease?

  • Mild, flu-like symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, body aches, and headaches.
  • Rash.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Swelling or a sore near the eye or on the side of the face where the bite or infection occurred (visible in fewer than half of infected people)
  • Enlarged glands.

How many Americans have Chagas disease?

CDC estimates that more than 300,000 persons with Trypanosoma cruzi infection live in the United States.

How do you know if a kissing bug bite you?

Bite Marks Kissing bugs are so named because they like to bite around the mouth or eyes. You’ll often see 2-15 bite marks in one area and maybe redness and swelling. It might be hard to tell them apart from other bug bites, minor skin irritations, or infections.

What happens if your bit by a kissing bug?

Kissing bugs can cause patches of bites, often around the mouth. The bites are usually painless, but they may swell and look like hives. Itching from the bites may last a week.

What states have Chagas disease?

State Year reporting began Primary objectives for Chagas disease surveillance
Tennessee 2010 Identify source of infection; monitor acute and chronic disease burden
Texas 2013 Identify source of infection; monitor acute and chronic disease burden
Massachusetts 2008 Monitor chronic disease phase burden

Does Chagas go away on its own?

Signs and symptoms that develop during the acute phase usually go away on their own. In some cases, if the infection isn’t treated, Chagas disease will advance to the chronic phase.

How long can you live with Chagas?

acute, with mild or no symptoms that may last weeks to about two months; intermediate or indeterminate phase that has few if any symptoms and may last 10-20 years or longer; and.

What bugs carry Chagas disease?

Triatomine bugs are a type of reduviid bug that can carry Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease.

Is Chagas disease in the US?

Chagas disease is a life-threatening parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic through much of the Americas, from the southern United States to Argentina and Chile.

Where is Chagas in the US?

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease occurs in the Americas, including the southern half of North America, where the specific vector insects (triatomines), T. cruzi, and infected reservoir mammalian hosts are found.

Where are Chagas found?

People who have Chagas disease can be found anywhere in the world. However, transmission of the disease by kissing bugs (vectorborne transmission), only occurs in the Americas. Most people with Chagas disease became infected in rural areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America.

Are stink bugs the same as kissing bugs?

Kissing bugs look similar to stink bugs, but stink bugs are typically smaller and lack the red, orange, or yellow stripes of color that you can see on kissing bugs.

Do kissing bugs fly or crawl?

Kissing bugs can fly, but they can also crawl and get inside that way. Homeowners can get rid of kissing bugs using liquid residual pesticides, baits or dusts.

Is there a kissing bug in the Philippines?

Reportedly, the insect is mainly found inside the habitations and during nighttime. Through those connections was possible to collect a few specimen in Quezon City, all identified as Triatoma rubrofasciata.

How long do kissing bugs live?

Adult kissing bugs are about 1/2 to 1 inch long. Kissing bugs hatch from small eggs and go through five juvenile (nymphal) stages before they become adults. Some kinds of kissing bugs can live up to two years. Size comparison of a kissing bug with a U.S. penny.

How do you know if a roach bite you?

Cockroach bites are bright red and are around 1-4mm wide and slightly larger than bed bug bites. Compared to bed bug bites which are usually found in groups in a straight line, cockroach bites only appear one at time. Like most insect bites, cockroach bites cause the skin to react by swelling up and becoming itchy.

How does the kissing bug locate its human prey?

1. How does the kissing bug (e.g., Rhodnius sp., Triatoma dimidiate ) locate its human prey? These bugs defecate on the person later they bite and ingest blood. If Trypanosome cruzi parasites in the bug feces enter the body through mucous membranes or breaks in the skin that person can get infected.

Can blood test detect Chagas?

If you have the signs and symptoms of Chagas disease, blood tests can confirm the presence of the parasite or the proteins that your immune system creates (antibodies) to fight the parasite in your blood.

Is chronic Chagas treatable?

Today Chagas disease is treatable. Therapy is highly effective if given during the acute phase of the disease and less effective when administered during the chronic phase. This is why early diagnosis is so important.

How long do you have to treat Chagas disease?

If you have Chagas disease, you have about a 30% chance of developing complications. Treatment for Chagas disease includes taking an antiparasitic medicine for up to 2 months.

Is Chagas disease in California?

California has the most people with Chagas disease of any state, with 70-100,000. Most were infected while living in Latin America, but there are examples of local transmission as well.

How common is Chagas disease in Texas?

Chagas in Texas From the years 2013-2016, 91 cases of Chagas disease were reported in Texas. Of those cases, 20 people were infected while in Texas, and the other cases were probably acquired outside of Texas or the U.S. While there are not very many cases, many people may be living with the disease and not know it.

Can kissing bugs make you sick?

Kissing bugs can transmit a parasite that leads to a potentially serious illness called Chagas disease. Most cases of Chagas disease occur in Latin America. Although infection directly from exposure to the kissing bug is rare in the US, it is still important to take steps to prevent kissing bug bites.

Is a kissing bug a bed bug?

Kissing bugs are a relative of bed bugs, and they both feed the same way — they stick a beaky straw into your skin and slurp up your blood. Kissing bugs poop after they feed, and if the bug is infected, it releases the parasite onto your skin.

Can Chagas be cured?

Treatment. To kill the parasite, Chagas disease can be treated with benznidazole and also nifurtimox. Both medicines are nearly 100% effective in curing the disease if given soon after infection at the onset of the acute phase, including the cases of congenital transmission.

What is the mode of transmission of American trypanosomiasis?

Typically through feces of an infected triatomine insect (reduviid bug). Infection may occur when a bug bite is scratched, or by consuming food or beverages contaminated with infected bug feces; may also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or from mother to infant.

How do humans get Chagas disease?

Chagas disease can be transmitted in five different ways: by a vector (through the faeces of an insect), through vertical or congenital transmission (from mother to her child during pregnancy), by way of blood transfusions or organ transplants, by ingesting contaminated food or drinks, or because of laboratory

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