How does a diesel aftertreatment system work?

What is an aftertreatment system? It is a series of components that cleans the diesel exhaust emitted by the engine prior to releasing it through the tailpipe to the outside air. Its purpose is to reduce the emission of harmful pollutants into the environment.

What is aftertreatment regeneration?

After the exhaust passes through the DPF, diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is injected into the system. The DPF’s job is to capture the particulate matter (soot & ash) leaving the engine. Every so often the 1-box needs to burn off this particulate matter and does so in a process called regeneration.

What are the elements in exhaust after treatment system?

The exhaust aftertreatment system consists of five different components: A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Urea (AdBlue™) injection, a Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC).

What 4 components is Cummins using to reduce emissions for on highway vehicles?

About Cummins Emission Solutions These solutions include custom engineering systems and integrated controls, oxidation catalysts, particulate filters, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction systems such as selective catalytic reduction and NOx adsorbers, and engineered components such as dosers, and sensors.

How much does it cost to replace a DEF system?

The recommend repair is to replace the entire fuel system, from tank to injectors. We’ve seen reports of Ford dealerships quoting between $12,000 and $20,000 to replace a DEF-contaminated fuel system. As these trucks age, the cost of DEF repair could easily be more than the value of the vehicle.

What does aftertreatment mean?

What is an aftertreatment system? An aftertreatment system is a method or device for reducing harmful exhaust emissions from internal-combustion engines. In other words, it is a device that cleans exhaust gases to ensure the engines meet emission regulations.

How often should a DPF regeneration?

Active regeneration will be initiated every 300 miles or so depending on how you use your car and will take 5 to 10 minutes to complete. But it’s a problem if your journey’s too short and the regeneration doesn’t finish.

How long does a manual regeneration take?

Monitor the vehicle and surrounding area during the manual regeneration. If any unsafe condition occurs, shut off the engine immediately. Manual regeneration process may take up to 1 hour to complete.

Can you stop a parked regeneration?

To Cancel a Parked Regeneration hold the DPF Switch to the ON position for five (5) seconds and release. A Parked Regeneration will stop if the key is turned to the off position, the truck is put into gear or the parking brake is released. The regeneration will take approximately 20-40 min.

What is the difference between DOC and DPF?

Both the DOC and the DPF are honeycomb ceramic filters. However, unlike the DOC, the DPF is a wall-flow filter that traps any remaining soot that the DOC couldn’t oxidize. Raw fuel is injected into the exhaust stream to trigger temperatures over 600⁰ Celsius is required oxidise the build-up of soot.

Where in the exhaust stream is DEF injected?

No, DEF is injected into the diesel engine’s exhaust stream. It is stored in its on stand-alone tank, usually located right beside the diesel tank. It commonly has a blue cap or other blue indicator to identify it as DEF (whereas diesel is often associated with the color green).

How does a DPF regenerate?

DPF active regeneration Active regeneration happens when extra fuel is injected automatically as the filter reaches an approximately 45% full limit. The extra fuel raises the temperature of the exhaust and burns off the stored soot.

What is a Tier 4 Final engine?

Tier 4 refers to the latest emission milestone established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board applicable to new engines found in off-road equipment including construction, mining and agricultural equipment, marine vessels and workboats, locomotives and stationary engines

What is aftertreatment SCR operator inducement severity?

Information – Aftertreatment SCR Operator Inducement – Data Valid But Above Normal Operating Range – Most Severe Level. Critical SCR related fault codes have been active for an extended period of time and require immediate attention.

What is a Cummins Doc?

Diesel Particulate Filter. Cummins Emission Solutions’ DPF is coupled with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). Together, those products are effective at removing 99 percent of PM soot from the exhaust system using wall- flow substrates.

What happens if you mix DEF with gasoline?

What happens if DEF is put into the fuel tank? Typically, if DEF is introduced to the fuel tank, the truck will run poorly or even fail to start. Repairs to the fuel system can be costly. Components that have been contaminated with DEF will show crystallization after drying for a few hours as seen in Photo 1.

Why is DEF so expensive?

Prices for the diesel exhaust fluid that is a vital component of emissions systems on newer trucks are rising as costs for urea — a core DEF ingredient — have jumped. It’s certainly a noteworthy increase in price levels. But it’s all driven by urea prices.”

How long does DEF last?

Because it doesn’t include any preservatives, DEF does come with a shelf life. The good news is, it’s a fairly long shelf life; DEF can usually be stored up to one year without any issues.

Can SCR be cleaned?

SCR catalyst systems need to be cleaned to remove contaminants and plugs. If the catalyst is not kept clean and the ammonia injection system is not tuned, ammonia slip occurs.

What causes DEF pump failure?

Topping up your DEF system with hard water can also result in scale or deposits forming. Dirt / Metal Contamination: Contaminated DEF can cause abrasion of the DEF pump. Dirt, rust or tank scale can occur with improper of DEF storage or handling (e.g. res-using disposable DEF containers).

How do you clean a diesel particulate filter?

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Can I clean a DPF myself?

Don’t DPFs clean themselves? In theory, yes. “Passive Regeneration” or if appropriate Active DPF regeneration will take place as part of a healthy diesel engine running cycle, but active regeneration can fail once a blockage reaches a certain level. Sometimes a “forced” regeneration may be carried out by a mechanic.

How do you manually regenerate a DPF?

To kick off a manual DPF regeneration you should

  1. Put the vehicle in neutral.
  2. Put on the hand brake.
  3. Leave the pedals alone!
  4. Press and hold the DPF button for 2 seconds or longer.

How long will a DPF last?

around 100,000 miles A DPF can last up to around 100,000 miles if maintained properly. After the car has exceeded that mileage, you could be looking at paying a large amount of money for a replacement – so always properly check MoT and service records when buying a used car.

Can I regen while driving?

Your truck can undergo the regen process properly while running, and will in fact, usually do so. Your diesel particulate filter, or DPF, undergoes routine passive regen as needed during steady driving. Active regeneration also occurs and happens best during highway driving speeds.

What happens if you don’t Regen a truck?

Regeneration, or regen, of the DPF filter, is the process that burns the soot accumulation that is inside the DPF filter. If you can no longer start a regen then you will eventually get stuck in a derate which will then lead to an engine shut down.

Can I use water while my softener is regenerating?

Water softener regeneration cycle time is about two hours. It is not recommended to use water during a water softener regeneration, as hard water will fill the water heater, which could lead to buildup in the equipment.

How long is parked regeneration?

How long does a parked DPF regen take? It takes approximately 20-60+ minutes. It will continue to regen until the soot level has reached ‘low’ or ‘0%. ‘ Some trucks will let you monitor your soot level gauge on the dashboard.

How long should Regen last?

Just like most other operators that are using our tool for preventative maintenance, this would be the typical experience. Unfortunately, far too often it does not go quite as smoothly. First, as a general rule of thumb, a forced DPF regen should last approximately 45 minutes.

How do you force a regeneration?

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What is inside a DPF?

A DPF typically uses a substrate made of a ceramic material that is formed into a honeycomb structure. In order to reduce emissions from diesel vehicles, diesel particulate filters capture and store exhaust soot, which must be periodically burned off to regenerate the filter.

How do I know if my DPF needs cleaning?

When the filter becomes faulty or clogged up with soot, you will normally be alerted to this by an orange light on your dashboard. The emission of black soot is another sign that you need to have your DPF cleaned. Your oil level may also increase, as may your fuel consumption levels.

Can a doc be cleaned?

When Is It Time To Have Your DPF or DOC Cleaned? A good rule of thumb is to go in for a cleaning about every 200,000 miles or less, depending on your duty style. It is possible to burn off this excess ash and soot on your own using either passive or active regeneration.

Is DEF fluid made from urine?

The Bottom Line on Urine and DEF Diesel exhaust fluid is not made of urine, and if you are going to urinate in your SCR system, you’re looking at having to pay some pretty hefty repair costs to clean and replace engine components once they have been contaminated.

Can you dump DEF down the drain?

If one needs to dispose of bad DEF, do so in an ethical manner. Do not pour DEF down a drain or dump outside. Every area has proper DEF disposal regulations so check with the local government, municipal and environmental agency.

How often do you fill up DEF?

The typical DEF tank will be approximately 15 – 20 gallons, thus requiring a fill every 5,000 to 6,000 miles.

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