After Lysander’s departure, Agesilaus raided Phrygia, the satrapy of Pharnabazus, until his advance guard was defeated not far from Daskyleion by the superior Persian cavalry. After his victory at the Battle of Sardis, Agesilaus became the first king to be given the command of both land and sea.
Who was King agesilaus?
Agesilaus was born into the Eurypontid house (one of the two royal families of Sparta) and was the son of King Archidamus II. He succeeded Agis II with aid from Lysander. At the time that he assumed power, Sparta, which had defeated Athens in 404, was at war with Persia in Asia Minor.
How many slaves escaped Athens to Spartan fortified Decelea according to Thucydides?
Thucydides estimated that 20,000 slaves, many of them skilled workers, escaped to Decelea, from 413 until the close of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
How do you pronounce agesilaus?
Why did the Corinthian war happen?
The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in northwest Greece in which Thebes and Sparta intervened. The deeper cause was hostility towards Sparta, provoked by that city’s “expansionism in Asia Minor, central and northern Greece and even the west”.
What is the Agoge in ancient Greece?
The agōgē (Greek: ἀγωγή in Attic Greek, or ἀγωγά, agōgā in Doric Greek) was the rigorous education and training program mandated for all male Spartan citizens, with the exception of the firstborn son in the ruling houses, Eurypontid and Agiad.
When was the Cyropaedia written?
4th century BC The Cyropaedia (or Cyropedia) is a “partly fictional biography” of Cyrus the Great, written in the early 4th century BC by the Athenian gentleman-soldier, and student of Socrates, Xenophon of Athens. The Latinized title Cyropaedia derives from Greek Kúrou paideía, meaning “The Education of Cyrus”.
Is it true that Sparta suffered from a plague during the war?
In 430 BC, a plague struck the city of Athens, which was then under siege by Sparta during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). In the next 3 years, most of the population was infected, and perhaps as many as 75,000 to 100,000 people, 25% of the city’s population, died.
Who had strongest navy during the Peloponnesian wars?
Athens emerged from the war as the strongest naval power in the Aegean and in the course of the following decades forged an empire with tributary territory in the Aegean, the mainland of Asia Minor and in Greece itself that made her one of the two great powers on the mainland.
Who put so much pressure on the Spartans that they eventually declared war on Athens?
Alcibiades, while condemned as a traitor, still carried weight in Athens. He prevented the Athenian fleet from attacking Athens; instead, he helped restore democracy by more subtle pressure. He also persuaded the Athenian fleet to attack the Spartans at the battle of Cyzicus in 410.
Who lost the Corinthian war?
This war, called the Corinthian War (395–386) because much of it took place on Corinthian territory, was fought against Sparta by a coalition of Athens (with help from Persia), Boeotia, Corinth, and Argos. Sparta eventually won the war, but only after the Persians had switched support from Athens to Sparta.
What was Corinth’s biggest enemy?
Unlock During the Corinthian War, Corinth formed a coalition with Thebes, Athens, and Argos. The allied forces united against the common enemy, Sparta, and their coalition was supported by the Achaemenid Empire.
What ended the Corinthian war?
395 BC – 387 BC Corinthian War/Periods
What were slaves called in Sparta?
The helots The helots were the slaves of the Spartans. Distributed in family groups across the landholdings of Spartan citizens in Laconia and Messenia, helots performed the labour that was the bedrock on which Spartiate leisure and wealth rested.
Did Spartans really throw babies off cliffs?
Infanticide was a disturbingly common act in the ancient world, but in Sparta this practice was organized and managed by the state. The ancient historian Plutarch claimed these “ill-born” Spartan babies were tossed into a chasm at the foot of Mount Taygetus, but most historians now dismiss this as a myth.
Who betrayed Sparta?
Ephialtes In the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, Ephialtes was portrayed by Kieron Moore and is depicted as a loner who worked on a goat farm near Thermopylae. He betrays the Spartans to the Persians out of greed for riches, and, it is implied, unrequited love for a Spartan girl named Ellas.
Why was Cyropaedia important to the founding fathers?
People like Thomas Jefferson, who drafted the Declaration of Independence and became the third president of the United States, had to rely on Xenophon’s Cyropaedia as a reference for the life and leadership of the Persian king.
Who wrote Cyropaedia?
Who wrote the Cyrus Cylinder?
Cyrus the Great The Cyrus Cylinder is a document issued by Cyrus the Great, consisting of a cylinder of clay inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform script. The cylinder was created in 539 BCE, surely by order of Cyrus the Great, when he took Babylon from Nabonidus, ending the Neo-Babylonian empire.
Did Athens beat Sparta?
Athens lost its dominance in the region to Sparta until both were conquered less than a century later and made part of the kingdom of Macedon.
How many people died from the Black plague?
How many people died during the Black Death? It is not known for certain how many people died during the Black Death. About 25 million people are estimated to have died in Europe from the plague between 1347 and 1351.
Who killed perikles?
Pericles was briefly deposed in 430, but after the Athenians’ efforts to negotiate with Sparta failed, he was quickly reinstated. In 429 Pericles’ two legitimate sons died of the plague. A few months later, Pericles himself succumbed. His death was, according to Thucydides, disastrous for Athens.
Did Athens have a stronger navy than Sparta?
Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major land powers of the Peloponnese and central Greece, as well as the sea power Corinth. Thus, the Athenians had the stronger navy and the Spartans the stronger army.
Did Athenian slaves fight in wars?
To defeat Persia, Athens’ upperclass hoplites, “reportedly armed three hundred slaves, probably as hoplites, to fight at the battle of Marathon against the Persians” (Brown 21). During the Second Persian War, the Athenians fended off the Persians again.
What were the reasons the Athenians lost the war?
In 430 BC, an outbreak of a plague hit Athens. The plague ravaged the densely packed city, and in the long run, was a significant cause of its final defeat. The plague wiped out over 30,000 citizens, sailors and soldiers, including Pericles and his sons. Roughly one-third to two-thirds of the Athenian population died.
Why didnt Sparta burn Athens?
As Thebes grew richer, Sparta grew more wary of accidentally creating a new powerful rival. Given Athens’ generations-old enmity towards Thebes, it would be safer for Sparta to preserve Athens as a buffer, absorbing Theban aggression and allowing for shrewd alliance politics if the need arose.
What caused Athens strategy to backfire?
The Athenian Defense Strategy Recognizing the supremacy of Sparta’s infantry, the Athenians, under the leadership of Pericles, decided it was in their best interest to take a defensive strategy. This strategy ended up backfiring slightly as a plague broke out in Athens in 430 BCE that devastated the city.
Why did Sparta Not Destroy Athens?
Like the Athenians before the war, the Spartans believed in rule by force rather than cooperation. Sparta, however, had another motive for sparing Athens: they feared that a destroyed Athens would add to the growth in influence of Thebes, just north of Athens.
What was the highest point in a Greek city?
Mount Lycabettus (/ˌlaɪkəˈbɛtəs/), also known as Lycabettos, Lykabettos or Lykavittos (Greek: Λυκαβηττός, pronounced [likaviˈtos]), is a Cretaceous limestone hill in the Greek capital Athens. At 277 meters (908 feet) above sea level, its summit is the highest point in Central Athens and pine trees cover its base.
Is Corinth a Spartan?
Corinth (/ˈkɒrɪnθ/ KORR-inth; Ancient Greek: Κόρινθος, romanized: Kórinthos; Doric Greek: Ϙόρινθος; Latin: Corinthus) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
What was a major result of the Persian wars?
What was an important result of the Persian wars? It preserved the Greek’s independence and made sure that Persia did not conquer all of Europe. What were the Greeks able to use to win the Battle of Salamis? The Greeks used fast ships to ram into the Persian ships.